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August 09, 2008

All About Amoebiasis - For Public

Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention
For Public


Some infectious diseases are caused by biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and prions rather than by genetic, physical or chemical agents. Amoebiasis, sometimes spelt amebiasis, is one of those common diseases, caused by a parasite which infects the bowel casing a type of gastroenteritis infection.


This disease generally occurs in young to middle aged adults, but can affect anyone because people can be receptive to infection by ingesting contaminated food or water containing the Entamoeba histolytica microorganism, although Amoebiasis is mostly associated with people living in areas of poor sanitation and it is a common cause of diarrhea among people living or traveling to developing countries, specially those located in tropical or subtropical areas, but also coming from domestic suburbs with non hygienic conditions. Approximately 500 cases are reported each year in New York State and most of those cases occur among New York City residents.


As Amebiasis is an intestinal illness caused by a microscopic parasite called Entamoeba histolytica, to trace the cause of the disease it is necessary to know what you ate and drank in the previous weeks, and/or where you traveled before you became ill. Entamoeba histolytica parasites are only found in humans.


After infection, it may take from a few days up to two to four weeks before becoming ill. Some people with amebiasis may carry the parasite for weeks to years, often without symptoms. Amoebiasis can progress to amoebic dysentery in the wide, lower part of the intestine and then spread to cause severe damage to the intestine. Although rarely, amoebiasis can cause abscesses in the liver, lungs, and brain or even elsewhere in the body.


Amoebiasis occurs when Entamoeba histolytica parasites are taken in by mouth, eaten or swallowed something infected with such parasite, however the most common way this happens is by person-to-person spread. People with amoebiasis have Entamoeba histolytica parasites in their feces, and their contaminated hands can spread the parasites to surfaces and objects which will be touched by other people. Under certain circumstances, this disease may also spread sexually by oral-anal contact.

In your household, the risk to spread amoebiasis can be reduced if people infected or suffering gastroenteritis do not prepare or handle food to be eaten by other people and that no one shares their towel or wash cloths. Food handlers, child care workers and health care workers with amoebiasis must not work until symptoms have stopped. Children must not attend child care centers, kindergartens or schools until symptoms have stopped.


People with amoebiasis may experience mild or severe symptoms or no symptoms at all, the common are stomach cramps, nausea, diarrhea, sometimes containing blood, loose stools, abdominal tenderness and occasional fever and weight loss. Your doctor may proceed to examination of the stools under a microscope to diagnose amebiasis and prescribe specific antibiotics such as metronidazole to treat effectively this disease.


Fecal material from infected people may contaminate water or food serving as a vehicle to infect others, so it is important that people observe preventive measures, infected or not, including careful handwashing thoroughly with soap and hot running water for at least ten seconds after going to the toilet. By frequently washing your hands you are eliminating the amoebiasis parasite that you have picked up from contaminated surfaces, from other people, or from animals and animal waste. Infected homosexuals should refrain from intimate contact and people traveling overseas, must take special care.

Bathrooms and toilets must be cleaned often to avoid the spread of disease, paying particular attention to surfaces such as handles, toilet seats, taps and diaper changing tables. Boil untreated water coming directly from lakes or rivers before drinking it since it may be contaminated with feces from people. Also contaminated food and drink are common sources of amoebiasis. Wash your hands before preparing food, before eating, after going to the toilet or changing diapers, after smoking or after using a tissue or handkerchief.

People must carefully select and prepare any food and drink as an effective preventive measure against amoebiasis. Uncooked foods must be avoided, particularly vegetables and fruit, which cannot be peeled before eating. Unpacked drinks and ice should also be avoided. Food handlers should always use disposable paper towels or an air dryer to dry their hands. Generally, cloth towels are not recommended as they can spread germs from one person to another.

Finally, remember that safe food storage and handling reduce also the risk of amoebiasis infections by following simple guidelines:

* Thoroughly cook all raw foods.

* Thoroughly wash raw vegetables and fruits before eating.

* Reheat food until the internal temperature of the food reaches at least 167º Fahrenheit.

And do not forget that part of the microwave cooking process, includes careful instructions of the standing times to ensure the food is completely cooked before it is served.

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July 26, 2008

How To Set Up a Wireless Network?

How To Set Up a Wireless Network?

In a wireless network, radio waves are used to communicate between each networked computer's wireless adapter and the wireless base station. The base stations and adapters follow one of the 802.11 radio transmission standards developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The most popular versions of these standards are often referred to as Wi-Fi.

By using wireless networking in your office you can easily share internet connections, files and printers and it doesn't require a major commitment of time or expense. A wireless network requires Two Main Components:

Base Station (also called a router or gateway)
Network Adapter for each computer on your network

One benefit of networking computers in your small office is that everyone can use certain files, folders and a printer. This happens when the owner of a computer makes files, folders or a connected printer available to others on the network through a process called "Sharing." Once files, folders or a printer are shared, others on the network can then access them.

To facilitate this multi-user access, all of the computers that are sharing or accessing shared resources must first be Members of The Same Workgroup.

Once a workgroup has been created, it is visible when you Open My Network Places. (Click the My Network Places icon on your desktop.) The ability to see a whole workgroup simplifies the viewing and accessing of shared resources.

To Specify a Computer's Workgroup in Windows XP Operating System :

1.Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click System. If you don't see a System icon, click Performance and Maintenance, and then click System.

2.Click the Computer Name tab.

3.Click Change, and then in the Workgroup box, enter the name of the workgroup you want to join or create.

Naming conventions are important to keep in mind when you set up or add computers to workgroups. A workgroup name must be:

• The same for all computers in the workgroup
• Different from any computer name in the workgroup

Computer names, meanwhile, must be unique:

• No other computer in the workgroup can have the same name
• The computer name must also be different from the workgroup name

To Share a File, Folder or Drive Using Windows XP:
  1. Enable file sharing on your computer if you haven't already done so by running the Network Setup Wizard. Click Start, click Control Panel, click Network and Internet Connections, click Network Setup Wizard. You only need to do this once on your computer.
  2. Open My Computer.
  3. Browse to the folder that contains the files that you want to make available to other computers, and then select it.
  4. On the File menu, click Sharing and Security.
  5. Click Share this Folder on the Network tab. By default, the folder is made available to all of the other computers on your network, and everyone has read-only access. To give everyone read-write access, select Allow Network Users to Change My Files.
Note: You must have administrative privileges on your computer to share files and folders in Windows XP.

For shared files to be available to others, the computer with the files must be turned on and logged on to the network. Use My Network Places (Microsoft Windows XP) or Network Neighbourhood (Windows 2000 and Windows 98) to navigate to and access shared files and folders on your network.

You can avoid having to navigate to a shared resource using My Network Places when you "map" your computer to the resource. When you map to a shared folder or drive to a drive letter on your computer, you can use My Computer or Windows Explorer to view it.

To Map a Shared Folder or Drive to a Drive Letter:
  1. In Windows Explorer or My Computer, click the Tools menu, and then click Map Network Drive.
  2. Browse to the location of the network resource you want to map, and then click OK.
  3. Select a drive letter and then click Finish.
  4. Sharing a printer
There are two types of shared printers:

• Network printers are connected directly to a network, usually to a device called a print server rather than to a particular computer.
• Local printers, which you're more likely to use, are attached to a single computer on a network. By setting up printer sharing, you can share a local printer with the other computers on the network.

After you have added a computer to a workgroup, you can share any printers that are connected to it. To share a printer :
  1. Open the Printers control panel by clicking Start, pointing to Settings (or Control Panel) and then clicking Printers (or Printers and Faxes).
  2. Select the printer you want to share and on the File menu, click Sharing, or click Properties and then click the Sharing tab.
  3. In the Sharing dialog box, choose to share or not to share the printer.
You can also share new printers that you install on any of your networked computers. If the Add Printer Wizard detects that your computer is on a network, the wizard will give you the option to share the printer when you install it.

If you cannot access the Sharing option, or if you see a message stating that file and printer sharing is not turned on, you must enable the File and Printer Sharing component in Windows. In Windows XP you can do that through the Properties page for your network connection. In other Windows operating systems, you can use the network control panel.

Some Other Things to Know About Sharing Printers:

• Naming a shared printer. When you choose to share a printer, you'll assign it a name in the Sharing dialog box to identify it to the entire workgroup. The name should be different from any other device name in the workgroup, and should not be the same as the workgroup name. Use a name that helps you easily identify it, such as the location or brand and model.

• Setting up other computers to use a shared printer. To use a shared printer, each computer must have the printer driver installed that works correctly with its operating system. You can install the printer drivers by using Add Printers in the Printers control panel to install the printer on every computer that is going to use it. Install the printer as you would install any other printer, and select A network printer, or a printer that is attached to another computer option during the set up. You can then browse to the shared printer - provided that it and the computer it is attached to are turned on and accessible on the network - and then complete the installation.

On computers running Windows XP and Windows 2000, you can also install the drivers for other operating systems when you first share the printer. To do so, click Additional Drivers in the Sharing dialog box. You do not need to install the drivers in the other computers.

After the shared printer is set up, you can send print jobs from any of the computers in the workgroup exactly as you would print to a local printer.

If you are sharing files over a wireless network or with computers that are connected to the internet, security is an important consideration. If you don't take steps to help protect your network, it is possible for internet intruders or wireless eavesdroppers to access your shared files.

You can help protect computers on your wireless network from unauthorised access in several ways :

• Install a firewall between the internet and your network. Software-based firewalls, such as Windows Internet Connection Firewall (ICF), might interfere with file sharing over the local network. Instead, use wired and wireless base stations with a built-in hardware firewall that helps provide security while allowing unrestricted file sharing over the local network.

• Enable Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) or 128-bit wired equivalent privacy (WEP) to help prevent eavesdroppers from accessing your shared files.

• Assign passwords to folders you want to protect by using Windows share-level access control, also known as "permissions."

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Constipation & How To Deal With It

Constipation & How To Deal With It


Constipation is a common digestive system problem in which you have infrequent bowel movements, pass hard stools, or strain during bowel movements.

In terms of frequency, what constitutes constipation for one person may be normal for someone else. That's because the normal frequency of bowel movements varies widely — from three a day to three a week. What's normal for you may not be normal for someone else.

In general, though, you're probably experiencing constipation if you pass hard and dry stools less than three times a week. In some cases, constipation also may make you feel bloated or sluggish or experience discomfort or pain.

Fortunately, a few common-sense lifestyle changes, including getting more exercise, eating high-fiber foods and drinking plenty of water, can go a long way toward preventing or alleviating constipation.


Not having a bowel movement every day doesn't necessarily mean you're constipated. You're likely constipated, however, if you:

* Pass a hard stool fewer than three times a week
* Strain frequently during bowel movements
* Have abdominal bloating or discomfort


Normally, the waste products of digestion are propelled through your intestines by muscle contractions. In the large intestine, most of the water and salt in this mixture are reabsorbed because they're essential for many of your body's functions.

If too much water is absorbed or if the waste moves too slowly, you may become constipated. You may also experience constipation if the muscles you use to move your bowels aren't coordinated. This problem is called pelvic floor dysfunction (anismus) and it causes you to strain with most bowel movements, even soft ones. Stool moves through your colon but gets hung up in the rectum because of a lack of muscle coordination to empty your bowels.

A number of factors can cause an intestinal slowdown, including:

* Inadequate fluid intake
* A low-fiber diet
* Inattention to bowel habits
* Age
* Lack of physical activity
* Pregnancy
* Illness

Many medications, including those used to treat Parkinson's disease, high blood pressure and depression, also can cause constipation. The same is true of many narcotics. And frequent use of laxatives often aggravates and may even eventually cause constipation.

In rare cases, constipation may signal more serious medical conditions, such as colorectal cancer, hormonal disturbances or autoimmune diseases.

Sometimes young children are constipated because they forget to take time to use the toilet. And your toddler might become constipated during toilet training if he or she is afraid or unwilling to use the toilet.

Risk Factors

You're more likely to have problems with constipation if you're an older adult, are sedentary or bedridden, eat a diet that's low in fiber or don't drink enough fluids. You're also at risk if you take certain medications, including sedatives or narcotics, or you're receiving chemotherapy.

If you're pregnant, you may have bouts of constipation because of hormonal changes. Later in your pregnancy, pressure on your intestines from your uterus also can cause constipation.

When to Seek Medical Advice

See your doctor if you experience a recent, unexplained onset of constipation or change in bowel habits, or any of the following signs or symptoms, which might indicate a more serious health condition:

* Bowel movements just once or twice a week, despite corrective changes in diet or exercise
* Intense abdominal pain
* Blood in your stool
* Constipation that alternates with diarrhea
* Rectal pain
* Thin, pencil-like stools
* Unexplained weight loss

Tests and Diagnosis

A diagnosis of constipation generally depends on your medical history and a physical exam. Your doctor will first want to make sure you don't have a blockage in your small intestine or colon (intestinal obstruction), an endocrine condition, such as hypothyroidism, or an electrolyte disturbance, such as excessive calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). He or she will also want to check your medications in case they may be causing your constipation.

You may undergo these diagnostic procedures:

* Electrolyte. This will be done if your doctor suspects an Electrolyte Imbalance, such as Hypokalemia or Hypercalsemia as the causes of your constipation.
* Stool analysis. In some cases, your doctor may request a stool sample, to be analyzed for the presence of hidden (occult) blood.
* Barium enema. In this test, the lining of your bowel is coated with a contrast dye (barium) so that your rectum, colon and sometimes a part of the small intestine can be clearly seen on an X-ray.
* Sigmoidoscopy. In this procedure, your doctor uses a lighted, flexible tube to examine your sigmoid colon and rectum.
* Colonoscopy. This diagnostic procedure allows your doctor to examine the entire colon with a flexible, camera-equipped tube.
* Anorectal manometry. In this procedure, your doctor inserts a narrow, flexible tube into your anus and rectum and then inflates a small balloon at the tip of the tube. This allows your doctor to measure the coordination of the muscles you use to move your bowel. You may undergo this test if your doctor suspects pelvic floor dysfunction.


Although constipation can be extremely bothersome, it usually isn't serious. If it persists, and especially if straining results, you may develop complications such as hemorrhoids and cracks or tears in your anus called abrasions or fissures.

Very severe or chronic constipation can sometimes cause a fecal impaction, a mass of hardened stool that you can't eliminate by a normal bowel movement. An impaction can be dangerous, and you may need to have it manually removed.

If you use Laxatives Frequently, you may develop Lazy Bowel Syndrome, a condition in which your bowels become dependent on laxatives to function properly. In fact, laxative use can cause a number of problems, including Poor Absorption of Vitamins and Other Nutrients, Damage to Your Intestinal Tract and Worsening Constipation.

Treatments and Drugs

Changes in your lifestyle may be the safest way to manage constipation. To help ease symptoms, try using a fiber supplement, such as Oat Bran, Metamucil, Konsyl or Citrucel. These natural supplements help make stools softer and are safe to use every day. Be sure to drink plenty of water or other fluids every day. Otherwise, fiber supplements can actually make your constipation worse. And add fiber to your diet slowly to avoid problems with gas.

Your doctor may recommend a Stool Softener, such as Mineral Oil or Docusate (Colace, Surfak), to soften fecal matter so that it passes through your intestines more easily. But don't rely on stool softeners on a regular basis because they can cause other problems.

Your doctor may also suggest that you take Milk of Magnesia, which acts as a Mild Laxative. Mineral Oil may interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and can cause a serious form of pneumonia if it's accidentally inhaled (aspirated) into your lungs, so don't take mineral oil just before you lie down.

Other Approaches

If pelvic floor dysfunction is the cause of your constipation, your doctor may suggest biofeedback as a treatment. This technique may help you learn to better coordinate the muscles you use to defecate.

If you're pregnant — and in general — it's a good idea to check with your doctor before using any laxatives other than fiber supplements. Try eating lots of high-fiber foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains. It's a good idea to check the content of prepared foods because not all foods claiming to be high in fiber actually are. Drink plenty of fluids and get as much exercise as you can. Swimming and walking are good choices.


To help prevent constipation:

* Eat fiber regularly. Choose lots of high-fiber foods, including fruits, vegetables, beans and whole-grain cereals and breads. Experiment to see if particular fruits or vegetables have a laxative effect for you. Adding fiber to your diet gradually may help reduce gas and bloating.
* Limit problem foods. Foods that are high in fat and sugar and those that tend to be low in fiber content, such as ice cream, cheese and processed foods, may cause or aggravate constipation.
* Drink plenty of liquids. The exact amount of water and other fluids you should drink each day varies and depends on your age, sex, health, activity level and other factors.
* Increase your physical activity. Engage in regular exercise, such as walking, biking or swimming, on most days.
* Heed nature's call. The longer you delay going to the toilet once you feel the urge, the more water that's absorbed from stool and the harder it becomes.
* Try fiber supplements. Over-the-counter products such as Metamucil and Citrucel can help keep stools soft and regular. Check with your doctor about using stool softeners. If you use fiber supplements, be sure to drink plenty of water or other fluids every day. Otherwise, fiber supplements may cause constipation or make constipation worse. Add fiber to your diet slowly to avoid problems with gas.
* Don't rely on stimulant laxatives. These include products such as Correctol and Dulcolax, which cause muscle contractions in the intestines. Habitual use can damage your bowels and make constipation worse. For occasional relief try saline laxatives, such as milk of magnesia. Saline laxatives draw water into the colon to allow stool to pass easier. Keep in mind that long-term use of laxatives can cause dependency. For constipated children, give them plenty of fluids to drink, but avoid giving them laxatives unless your doctor says it's OK.

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All About Hyponatremia

All About Hyponatremia


Hyponatremia is an abnormally low concentration of sodium in your blood.

When your blood sodium is too low, your cells malfunction — causing swelling. In chronic hyponatremia, sodium levels drop gradually over several days or weeks — and symptoms are typically moderate. In acute hyponatremia, sodium levels drop rapidly — resulting in potentially dangerous effects, such as rapid brain swelling, which can result in coma and death.

Hyponatremia occurs when the sodium in your blood is diluted by excess water. Hyponatremia may result from medical conditions that impair excretion of water from your body, or by a significant increase in water consumption, such as by athletes competing in marathons and other high-endurance events.

Treatment focuses on the underlying condition and may include intravenous fluids and medications.


Hyponatremia symptoms may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Headache
* Confusion
* Lethargy
* Fatigue
* Appetite loss
* Restlessness and irritability
* Muscle weakness, spasms or cramps
* Seizures
* Decreased consciousness or coma


Sodium is a key component of your body. It's an electrolyte and helps carry nerve impulses between cells. It helps maintain normal blood pressure, it's essential for your nervous system to accomplish muscle movement, and it regulates the fluids in and around your cells.

Normal blood plasma contains between 136 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L) of sodium. Hyponatremia occurs when the sodium in your blood falls below 135 mEq/L.

When the sodium levels in your blood become too low, excess water enters your cells — causing them to swell. This swelling is especially dangerous to your brain because it's confined by your skull and unable to expand.

Hyponatremia is typically the result of a medical condition that impairs the excretion of water from your body, or the excessive consumption of water. The imbalance between sodium and water in your blood may occur in three primary ways:

* Hypervolemic hyponatremia. In hypervolemic hyponatremia, excess water — commonly the result of kidney failure, heart failure or liver failure — dilutes the sodium concentration, causing low sodium levels.
* Euvolemic hyponatremia. Normal water levels combined with low sodium levels (commonly due to chronic health conditions, cancer or certain medications) can lead to euvolemic hyponatremia.
* Hypovolemic hyponatremia. In hypovolemic hyponatremia, your water and sodium levels are both low. This may occur, for example, when exercising in the heat without replenishing your fluids or with marked blood loss.

Hyponatremia causes may include:

* Consuming excessive water during exercise. Because you lose sodium through sweat, drinking too much water during endurance activities, such as marathons and triathlons, can dilute the sodium content of your blood.
* Hormonal changes due to adrenal gland insufficiency (Addison's disease). Your adrenal glands produce hormones that help maintain your body's balance of sodium, potassium and water.
* Hormonal changes due to an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Hypothyroidism may result in a low blood sodium level.
* Diuretics (water pills) — especially thiazide diuretics. Diuretics work by making your body excrete more sodium in urine.
* Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH). In this condition, high levels of the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) are produced, causing your body to retain water instead of excreting it in your urine.
* Primary polydipsia. In this condition, your thirst increases significantly, causing increased fluid intake.
* Certain medications. Some medications, such as some antidepressants and pain medications, can cause you to urinate or perspire more than normal.
* Chronic, severe vomiting or diarrhea. This causes your body to lose fluids and electrolytes, such as sodium.
* Dehydration. In dehydration, your body loses fluids and electrolytes.
* Diet. Consuming a low-sodium diet combined with excessive water intake for prolonged periods can disturb the proper balance between sodium and fluids in your blood.
* Cirrhosis. Liver disease can cause fluids to accumulate in your body.
* Kidney problems. Kidney failure and other kidney disease may render your body unable to efficiently remove excess fluids from your body.
* Congestive heart failure. The condition causes your abdomen and lower extremities to retain fluids.

Risk factors

The following factors may increase your risk of hyponatremia:

* Age. Low blood sodium is more common in older adults. This is due to age-related changes and increased prevalence of chronic disease that may impair your body's normal sodium balance.
* Sex. Hyponatremia is more common in women than in men.
* Diet. You may be at an increased risk of hyponatremia if you are following a low-sodium diet, especially if combined with diuretic intake.
* Intensive physical activities. People who take part in marathons, ultramarathons, triathlons and other long-distance, high-intensity activities are at an increased risk of hyponatremia.
* Climate. Not being acclimated to hot weather can increase the amount of sodium you lose through sweating during exercise.
* Conditions that impair your body's water excretion. Medical conditions that may increase your risk of hyponatremia include kidney disease, syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) and heart failure, among others.

When to seek medical advice

If you take part in high-intensity activities, such as marathons, have a medical condition that increases your risk for hyponatremia, or have other risk factors for hyponatremia and you exhibit the signs and symptoms of low blood sodium, see your doctor.

Tests and diagnosis

Your doctor will take a medical history and conduct a physical examination. He or she will likely ask about your signs and symptoms, and whether you've experienced recent vomiting, diarrhea, or other significant fluid loss.

Because the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are nonspecific and occur in many conditions, it's impossible to diagnose the condition based on a physical exam alone. To confirm low blood sodium, laboratory tests — including blood tests and possibly urine tests — are necessary.


Untreated, acute hyponatremia — the form of hyponatremia in which sodium levels fall rapidly — can lead to rapid swelling of your brain, resulting in coma and death.

Treatments and drugs

Hyponatremia treatment is directed at the underlying cause, if it can be identified and corrected.

If you have moderate, chronic hyponatremia due to the use of diuretics or excessive water consumption, your doctor may advise you to temporarily cut back on fluids or adjust your diuretic use to increase the level of sodium in your blood.

If you have severe, acute hyponatremia, more aggressive treatment is required. Options include:

* Intravenous fluids. Your doctor may recommend intravenous (IV) administration of a sodium solution to raise the sodium levels in your blood. This often requires a stay in the hospital.
* Medications. You may take medications to manage the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia, such as headache, nausea and seizures.
* Hormone injections. If adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is the cause of hyponatremia, you may undergo hormone injections to correct the condition.


The following measures may help you prevent hyponatremia:

* Treat associated conditions. Getting treatment for conditions that contribute to hyponatremia, such as adrenal insufficiency, can help prevent you from experiencing low blood sodium.
* Educate yourself. If you have a medical condition that increases your risk of hyponatremia or you take diuretic medications, be aware of the signs and symptoms of low blood sodium.
* Take precautions during high-intensity activities. Guidelines from the International Marathon Medical Directors Association advise runners to drink only as much fluid as they lose due to sweating during a race. Athletes should drink no more than 31 ounces of water per hour during extended exercise.
* Consider drinking sports beverages during demanding activities. Ask your doctor about replacing water with sports beverages that contain electrolytes when participating in endurance events such as marathons, triathlons and other demanding activities.
* Drink water in moderation. Drinking water is vital for your health, so make sure you have a sufficient daily intake of fluids. But don't overdo it.

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June 14, 2008

What Is Naproxen Test ? Fever Of Unknown Origin

What Is Naproxen Test? Fever Of Unknown Origin


Fever of whatever etiology still remains a perplexing problem to both clinicians and investigators. Despite its established role as a Cardinal Sign of Infection, it remains elusive if not surprising in terms of final outcome. Increasingly, its role in Connective Tissue Diseases, Malignancies and Other Inflamatory isorders is slowly supplanting the exclusivitly of the symptom to just infectious conditions.

The likely identification of the cause of fever is crucially dependent upon meticulous history-taking and thorough physical examination coupled with useful ancillary and laboratory procedures. A dilemma arises when the diagnostic aids do not provide the expected results. Subjecting the patient to more laboratory examinations may provide an ordeal rather than a diagnosis. Shotgun Antimicrobial Therapy May Result in a Superinfection rather than a cure. The need to categorized prolonged fever in terms of specific etiology is essential in establishing a direction for the clinician's plan of action. Clinical studies have shown that The Most Common Causes of Prolonged Fever are Infections and Neoplasm. Based on this premise the Naproxen Test may provide a simple and economical tool in the causative differentiation of fever.

A seven-year study by Chang confirmed that naproxen test value in differentiating between infections and neoplasm. Lysis of fever upon administration of the drug favors a presumptive diagnostic of neoplastic fever. On the other hand, failure points to an infectious cause.

Naproxen Test


The patients were given Naproxen Sodium at 500 mg/tablet, one tablet every 12 hours p.c. for a total of 4 doses. Body temperature was taken orally every two hours prior.

Naproxen 500 mg/tablet Every 12 Hours P.C For 2 Days


Fever lysis after or within the time frame of drug administration was interpreted as suggestive of either a neoplastic condition or a connective tissue disease.
Nonresponse of the fever to the drug was taken to suggest an infectious condition.

Naproxen Administration was discontinued if any of the following were noted :

1). Hypersensitivity reaction,
2). Abdominal complaints, or
3). Patient refusal to take the drug.

Neoplastic Fever is the second most common cause of fever in cancer patients after infection. The establishment of the etiology of fever in patients with malignancy however, remains to be a challenging diagnostic scenario for clinicians. Distinguishing between infectious fever and neoplastic fever is of paramount importance in cancer patients because of the urgency and necessity for appropriate treatment in these immunocompromised hosts. Postulated pathogenic mechanisms for its occurrence include massive tumor necrosis, extensive neoplastic cell destruction, local inflammation due to ulceration of normal or malignant tissue, leucocytic infiltration of the neoplasm, interference with conjugation of pyrogenic steroids secondary to liver metastases and excessive heat production by tumor cells.

The more recent mechanism involves induction of pyrogenic cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukins 1 and 6 and interferon by the tumor cells itself or by host macrophages in response to the tumor. Cytokines stimulate production of prostaglandin E2 which act on the hypothalamus causing a change in the thermostatic set point. Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. It has been demonstrated to have both analgesic and antipyretic effects.

Dr. Chang pioneered the use of the 'Naproxen test' as a clinical tool in the differential diagnosis of fever of undetermined origin (FUO) in patients with cancer in a study conducted at the Oncology Unit of the Good Samaritan Hospital in Dayton, Ohio. The study population consisted of patients with FUO and suspected or diagnosed malignancy. Naproxen was administered at 250 mg twice a day orally at 12-hourly intervals for at least 3 days. The results of this study were promising. However validity was not established because of the lack of an independent, blind comparison with a reference standard. Instead, a correlation of the final diagnoses of FUO in all patients with their response to antibiotics and naproxen was done.

Subsequent observational studies on small groups of patients with specific malignancies similarly
had promising results, but likewise suffered from this critical flaw. This precluded further estimation of the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of the naproxen test. It is suggested that the more appropriate reference standard would be the absence of infection after extensive and thorough laboratory work-up coupled with the absence of any clinical deterioration without administration of any antibiotics on continued follow-up for at least a period of 2 weeks. Specifically, the more convincing evidence that a patient does not have any infection despite extensive work-up would be the non-deterioration of the patient in the absence of any antibiotics during a prolonged follow-up period.

With the advent of modern diagnostic technology, it is timely that the usefulness of this
test be re-evaluated in the present decade. In the Philippines, it is best that this test be validated in a tertiary center with a laboratory and radiology department that is equipped with highly sensitive diagnostic and imaging procedures that are needed to rule out any infection from bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic etiology. Likewise the staff should be competent in the performance and interpretation of these procedures.

Larger studies with a spectrum that would be representative of both hematologic and solid tumors are needed to confirm or refute the naproxen test as a valid and accurate tool in discriminating between neoplastic and infectious fever. To date neoplastic fever remains a diagnosis of exclusion. If the potential predictive value of this inexpensive and easy to perform test could be established, prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy and extensive fever work-up could be minimized. Likewise, delay in institution of chemotherapy could be prevented. This could all translate into improved quality of care and quality of life for the patient in terms of less medical expenses, less discomfort and inconvenience for the patient.

  1. The Naproxen Test was unequivocally positive in malignancies & connective tissue diseases.
  2. Malignant Lymphoma was the most common malignancy.
  3. Enteric Fever & Malaria were the most common infectious diseases with a true negative response. However, enteric fever also gave the highest false negative response.
  4. Amoebic Liver Abscess, Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Viral Hepatitis, Pneumonia, Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection, & Pulmonary Tuberculosis
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May 21, 2008

Select Boot Camp Startup Disc Sans Keyboard

Select Boot Camp Startup Disc Sans Keyboard

If you own an Intel-based Mac, and have installed Windows on it via Apple’s Boot Camp, then you’re familiar with how you tell your Mac whether to boot into OS X or Windows :
  • Just Hold Down The Option Key At Startup, and then
  • Use The Arrow Keys or Mouse to Choose The Windows or OS X Partition.
But here’s a fun alternative — good for those situations when you can’t reach the keyboard after choosing to reboot.
  • Make Sure You Have The Apple Remote In Hand, and
  • Press and Hold the Menu Button During Startup. Just as if you were at the machine, the boot loader will appear.
  • From here, Use The Forward & Backward Buttons To Cycle between the two operating systems, and
  • Activate The Desired One By Pressing Play. No muss, no fuss, no keyboard required.
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How To Fix Sluggish MacOS? - Hunt Down Process or Hogs

How To Fix Sluggish MacOS?
Hunt Down Process or Hogs

Has your Mac suddenly become sluggish? The problem may be a hidden program that doesn’t pop up in the Force Quit menu. To spot these troublemakers, you can do this tricks :
  1. First, Launch Activity Monitor (/Applications/Utilities) and,
  2. From the pop-up menu at the top of the window, Choose My Processes.
    • This shows the activity of any currently running applications (and their associated helper programs) and widgets.
    • Keep in mind that none of your Mac’s hidden Unix processes appear in the window (which is good, because you don’t want to mess with this stuff unless you know what you’re doing).
  3. When you’ve located an item that appears to be gumming up the works (a helper program that didn’t quit with its host program, for example), Select It & Click On The Quit Process button at the top of the window.
    • Activity Monitor offers an additional advantage: it can show you what’s occupying your Mac’s mind.
    • Just click on the CPU column to see which applications are hammering on your Mac’s CPU.
    • Or take a look at the Real Memory column to view the RAM hogs you’re running.
If quitting the hidden process doesn’t solve your slowdowns, try restarting your Mac. This will usually clear out the cobwebs and get your system back up to speed.

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Make Your Own Shortcuts In MacOS

Make Your Own Shortcuts In MacOS

You know you waste time whenever you reach for the mouse to activate commonly used commands. But what if the command’s keyboard shortcut is awkward, or there isn’t one for something you do a lot? Here are some tips, on how to create & manage your own shorcuts key in MacOS.
  1. Open up the System Preference Pane
  2. Go To Keyboard & Mouse Preference Pane,
  3. Choose Create Your Own Shortcuts, and then
  4. Change a Shortcut
It’s a snap to reassign a shortcut if it’s listed in the Keyboard & Mouse preference pane’s Keyboard Shortcuts tabs. Just double-click on the existing shortcut and then press the combination you’d rather use. You can use the Keyboard Shortcuts tab to change not only program-specific but also systemwide shortcuts.

This can be helpful if a standard shortcut is hard for you to remember, or when a shortcut in one program has a completely different function in another. Create a New Shortcut The Keyboard Shortcuts pane is also useful when you want to create shortcuts for commands that don’t have them—even a systemwide command such as Sleep.

How To Make a Sleep Shortcut

To make a sleep shortcut, just follow this instruction :
  1. Click On The Plus Sign (+) in the Keyboard Shortcuts Tab,
  2. Set The Applications Pop-Up Menu To All Applications,
  3. Type Sleep (Capitalization Counts) in the Menu Title field,
  4. Go To the Keyboard Shortcut Box,
  5. Press The Shortcut You Want To Use, and then
  6. Click on Add.
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May 19, 2008

Securely Erase Your Hard Disk - All About MacOS Trash

Securely Erase Your Hard Disk
All About MacOS Trash

That little crumpling sound your Mac makes when you empty the Trash may sound satisfyingly final, but don’t be lulled into a false sense of security. Traces of your personal information and even entire files can easily be left behind on your machine. Follow these steps to make sure your Trash is gone for good.

Securely Erase Your Hard Disk Before you sell or give away a Mac, make sure that no personal data remains on it. After you’ve copied all your files to your new Mac, restart the old one from the Mac OS X installation disc. Open Disk Utility and select your hard disk from the list on the left. Click on the Erase tab and then on Security Options.

Next, choose one of the several erasure methods that are offered. The 7-Pass Erase option is probably sufficient for most people, but if you’re truly paranoid, select 35-Pass Erase, which will make it nearly impossible for anyone, even James Bond, to recover your files. If you’re using a laptop, make sure it’s plugged in. This process can take a long time.

Delete Stubborn Files

Have a file that just won’t delete? There are third-party solutions, such as Marco Balestra’s handy and free Super Empty Trash (donations accepted; www.faqintosh.com). Or you can use the rm -rf command in Terminal to remove the file. Unfortunately, if you mess up with that command, you might erase your hard drive.

Here’s a third method to try. It may take longer, but it’s very safe and will work on files that seem immune to all other attempts.
  • Start by creating a new user in the Accounts preference pane. It doesn’t matter what name or access level you give the new account; it’s going to have a very short life.
  • Once the account is created, move the troublesome file from the Trash into the /Users/Shared folder.
  • Now go to the Apple menu and choose Log Out user name, and then log in as the new user.
  • Open the /Users/Shared folder, and move the pesky file into the new user’s Trash.
  • Now log out of the new account and log in to your main account. Return to the Accounts preference pane, select the account you just created, and click on the minus sign (–), or just press the delete key.
  • A dialog box will appear, asking you if you’re sure you want to do this. Of the three options—Cancel, OK, and Delete Immediately— select Delete Immediately. The troublesome file, along with the new user account and the disk space it used, will disappear. Selecting OK will leave the file on your disk.
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Want To Zoom / Enlarge Your MacOS Screen?

Want To Zoom / Enlarge Your MacOS Screen?

If you find interface elements too small to read comfortably, OS X will let you zoom in for a better look. Choose System Preferences from the Apple menu, click on Universal Access, and, in the Seeing tab, enable the Zoom option.

Now when you press 1-option–equal sign (=), whatever is on your display will be enlarged. (Use the equal sign that appears at the top of the regular keyboard rather than the one on the keypad.)

Press 1-option-hyphen (–) and the display zooms out. If your mouse has a scroll wheel or scroll ball, you can also zoom in and out by simply holding down the control key while moving the scroll wheel up and down.

By clicking on the Options button next to the Zoom entry, you can set the maximum and minimum zoom levels and decide how you want the display to react to your cursor; whether it should scroll only when the cursor reaches the edge of the screen, follow the cursor continuously, or keep the cursor centered. To quickly turn the zoom feature on or off, press 1-option-8.

Zoom with the Trackpad

By default you can just hold down the control key and use your mouse’s scroll wheel to zoom in and out on your display. But how can this be accomplished on a laptop that offers no scroll wheel? Universal Access offers this cool zooming feature: on Apple laptops that allow two-finger scrolling, press control and use your two fingers on the trackpad. Drag them up and the screen zooms; drag them down and the image shrinks back to normal size.

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May 14, 2008

MacOS (OSX & Above) Keyboard Shortkey (Shortcuts)

Want To Safe Your Time With Shortcuts?
Read This - MacOS (OSX & Above) Keyboard Shortkey

Always visiting the menu bar with your mouse when you want to apply a common function? Isn't it wasting a lot of your time? Well, for many common tasks you don’t need to. You can use Keyboard Shortcuts. Keyboard shortcuts use the modifier keys (the 3 to the left of the spacebar, shift, Fkeys and sometimes the Caps Lock) in conjunction with intuitive letter keys. You hold down the modifier key(s) and then type the letter. You don't hit them all at the same time. For instance, to save in almost every program all you need to do is hold down the command key (the key on either side of the spacebar, the one with the Apple on it) and type S (cmd+S). Here are the list of the MacOS Keybord Shortkey :

Four Most Common Modifier
  • cmd - the command key, the one right next to the spacebar. There is one on each side of the spacebar and they both act identically.
  • opt - the option key, well labeled
  • ctrl - the control key, well labeled
  • shft - the shift key, well labeled
They must be used from the Finder, not from an application.
  • cmd+N - Create a new folder
  • cmd+Down Arrow - Open a File or Folder
  • cmd+O (letter) or cmd+Down Arrow - Open a highlighted icon
  • Tab - Select the next alphabetical icon
  • shft+Tab - Select the previous alphabetical icon
  • Left Arrow (in icon view only)Select an icon to the left
  • Right Arrow (In icon view only) - Select an icon to the right
  • Up Arrow - Select an icon (or file) above
  • Down Arrow - Select an icon (or file) below
  • cmd+D - Duplicate a selected item
  • opt+Up Arrow - Open parent window
  • cmd+W - Close the Active Window
  • opt+click on folder triangle (list view) - Expand Folder and all contained within it
  • opt+click on folder triangle (list view) - Collapse Folder and all contained within it
  • cmd+opt+W - Close all open windows -(or opt+Close from the File menu or opt+clicking any window's close box)
  • cmd+dragging window's title bar - Move Inactive Window
  • cmd+I - Get Info
  • cmd+del - Move selection to the trash
  • cmd+opt while inserting disk - Rebuild Floppy Disk Desktop
  • cmd+opt+Tab while inserting disk - Erase Floppy Disk
  • opt+drag - will make a copy of the item instead of just moving it. The original will stay where it was and you will have two identical items
The Most Common Shortkey - To Virtually All MacOS Programs
  • cmd+A - Select All items or text in active window
  • cmd+C - Copy the current selection to the clipboard
  • cmd+O - Open a file
  • cmd+P - Print the active window
  • cmd+Q - Quit the active application
  • cmd+S - Save the current file or document
  • cmd+V - Paste clipboard contents at current cursor position
  • cmd+W - Close active window
  • cmd+X - Cut the current selection, delete it from current window and put it on the clipboard
  • cmd+Z - Undo the last action
Each application has many of it's own shortcuts. You will find many of them in the menus in the menu bar, more can usually be found in the help files. Here is the edit menu from the Finder. You can see the Keyboard shortcuts following the commands.

Booting Up Shortkey - Control Your Machine While Booting Up:
  • shft - allows you to start up your Mac without extensions.
  • C - allows you to force your Mac to boot from an internal CD-ROM drive.
  • cmd+opt - tells the Mac to rebuild the hidden Desktop file. This should be done periodically for good preventative maintenance.
  • cmd+opt+shft+delete - tells the Mac to skip the first device in the SCSI chain. This comes in handy when you want to force your Mac to boot from an external drive.
  • cmd+opt+P+R - clears the parameter RAM. One of those things to do when things aren't right and you can't think of anything else to try. This clears things like date and time, location, etc.
  • Spacebar - opens the Extensions Manager when starting up.
  • Mouse Button - will force eject a floppy while booting up.
  • opt (OS9&10) - will give a choice of which drive or volume to boot from
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May 13, 2008

Command List (A To Z) - MacOS (OSX & Above) Terminal

A To Z Index - Command List
MacOS Terminal

Below Are List of Command That Can Be Used In MacOS Terminal. This is The Command Shell of Darwin (The Open Source Core of OSX)

  1. alias - Create an alias• alloc List used and free memory
  2. awk - Find and Replace text within file(s)
  3. basename - Convert a full pathname to just a folder path
  4. bash - Bourne-Again SHell (Linux)
  5. bless - Set volume bootability and startup disk options.
  6. break - Exit from a loop
  7. cal - Display a calendar
  8. case - Conditionally perform a command
  9. cat - Display the contents of a file
  10. cd - Change Directory
  11. chflags - Change a file or folder's flags.
  12. chgrp - Change group ownership
  13. chmod - Change access permissions
  14. chown - Change file owner and group
  15. chroot - Run a command with a different root directory
  16. cksum - Print CRC checksum and byte counts
  17. clear - Clear terminal screen
  18. cmp - Compare two files
  19. comm - Compare two sorted files line by line
  20. complete - Edit a command completion [word/pattern/list]
  21. continue - Resume the next iteration of a loop
  22. cp - Copy one or more files to another location
  23. cron - Daemon to execute scheduled commands
  24. crontab - Schedule a command to run at a later date/time
  25. cut - Divide a file into several parts
  26. date - Display or change the date & time
  27. dc - Desk Calculator
  28. dd - Data Dump - Convert and copy a file
  29. df - Display free disk space
  30. diff - Display the differences between two files
  31. diff3 - Show differences among three files
  32. dirname - Convert a full pathname to just a path
  33. dirs - Display list of remembered directories
  34. diskutil - Disk utilities - Format, Verify, Repair
  35. ditto - Copy files and folders
  36. dscl - Directory Service command line utility
  37. du - Estimate file space usage
  38. echo Display message on screen
  39. ed - A line-oriented text editor (edlin)
  40. enable - Stop or start printers and classes.
  41. env - Set environment and run a utility
  42. eval - Evaluate several commands/arguments
  43. exec - Execute a command
  44. exit - Exit the shell
  45. expect - Programmed dialogue with interactive programs. Also see AppleScript
  46. expand - Convert tabs to spaces
  47. expr - valuate expressions
  48. false - Do nothing, unsuccessfully
  49. fdisk - Partition table manipulator for Darwin UFS/HFS/DOS
  50. find - Search for files that meet a desired criteria
  51. fmt - Reformat paragraph text
  52. fold - Wrap text to fit a specified width
  53. foreach - Loop, expand words, and execute commands
  54. fsck - Filesystem consistency check and repair
  55. ftp - Internet file transfer program
  56. GetFileInfo - Get attributes of HFS+ files
  57. getopt - Parse positional parameters
  58. goto - Jump to label and continue execution
  59. grep - Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
  60. groups - Print group names a user is in
  61. gzip - Compress or decompress files
  62. head - Display the first lines of a file
  63. history - Command History
  64. hostname - Print or set system name
  65. id - Print user and group names/id's
  66. if - Conditionally perform a command
  67. info - Help info
  68. install - Copy files and set attributes
  69. jobs - List active jobs
  70. join - Join lines on a common field
  71. kill - Stop a process from running
  72. l - List files in long format (ls -l)
  73. ll - List files in long format, showing invisible files (ls -la)
  74. less - Display output one screen at a time
  75. ln - Make links between files (hard links, symbolic links)
  76. locate - Find files
  77. logname - Print current login name
  78. login - log into the computer
  79. logout - Exit a login shell (bye)
  80. lpr - Print files
  81. lprm - Remove jobs from the print queue
  82. lpstat - Printer status information
  83. ls - List information about file(s)
  84. lsbom - List a bill of materials file
  85. lsof - List open files
  86. man - Help manual
  87. mkdir - Create new folder(s)
  88. mkfifo - Make FIFOs (named pipes)
  89. more - Display output one screen at a time
  90. mount - Mount a file system
  91. mv - Move or rename files or directories
  92. net - Manage network resources
  93. nice - Set the priority of a command
  94. nohup - Run a command immune to hangups
  95. onintr - Control the action of a shell interrupt
  96. open - Open a file/folder/URL/Application
  97. osascript - Execute AppleScript
  98. passwd - Modify a user password
  99. paste - Merge lines of files
  100. pico - Simple text editor
  101. popd - Restore the previous value of the current directory
  102. pr - Convert text files for printing
  103. printenv - Print environment variables
  104. printf - Format and print data
  105. ps - Process status
  106. pushd - Save and then change the current directory
  107. pwd - Print Working Directory
  108. quota - Display disk usage and limits
  109. rcp - Copy files between machines.
  110. repeat - Execute a command multiple times
  111. rm - Remove filesrmdir Remove folder(s)
  112. rpm - Remote Package Manager
  113. rsync - Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
  114. RsyncX - Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
  115. say - Convert text to audible speech
  116. sched - Schedule a command to run at a later time
  117. sdiff - Merge two files interactively
  118. sed - Stream Editor
  119. set - Set a shell variable = value
  120. setenv - Set an environment variable = value
  121. setfile - Set attributes of HFS+ files
  122. shift - Shift positional parameters
  123. shutdown - Shutdown or restart OS X
  124. sleep - Delay for a specified time
  125. softwareupdate - System software update tool
  126. sort - Sort text files
  127. split - Split a file into fixed-size pieces
  128. stop - Stop a job or process
  129. su - Substitute user identity
  130. sudo - Execute a command as another user
  131. sum - Print a checksum for a file
  132. switch - Conditionally perform a command
  133. tail - Output the last part of files
  134. tar - Tape ARchiver
  135. tee - Redirect output to multiple files
  136. test - Condition evaluation
  137. time - Measure Program Resource Use
  138. touch - Change file timestamps
  139. traceroute - Trace Route to Hosttr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
  140. true - Do nothing, successfully
  141. tty - Print filename of terminal on stdin
  142. umask - Users file creation mask
  143. umount - Unmount a device
  144. unalias - Remove an alias
  145. uname - Print system information
  146. unexpand - Convert spaces to tabs
  147. uniq - Uniquify files
  148. units - Convert units from one scale to another
  149. unset - Remove variable or function names
  150. unsetenv - Remove environment variable
  151. users - Print login names of users currently logged in
  152. uuencode - Encode a binary file
  153. uudecode - Decode a file created by uuencode
  154. wc - Print byte, word, and line counts
  155. where - Report all known instances of a command
  156. which - Locate a program file in the user's pathwhile Execute commands
  157. who - Print all usernames currently logged on
  158. whoami - Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
  159. xargs - Execute utility - passing arguments
  160. yes - Print a string until interrupted
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May 08, 2008

Eat Bananas? Why Should I?

Eat Bananas? Why Should I?
Here Are Some Facts, Why You Should Eat Bananas?

Below are some facts about Bananas, One Of The Most Popular Fruits In The World :
  1. About 50 percent of people who are allergic to latex are often also allergic to bananas.
  2. Alexander the Great first came across bananas in India in 327 B.C.
  3. Bananas were introduced to the United States at the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Celebration, where they were sold wrapped in foil for 10 cents each.
  4. Before Cavendish, Gros Michel was the main banana cultivar exported on a mass, commercial scale. In the mid-20th century, Gros Michel was ravaged by Panama disease and is no longer sold commercially.
  5. Chiquita was initially called the United Fruit Company. In the 20th century, they played a controversial role in the politics of Central America, where they had vast holdings. The company earned the nickname of "The Octopus" in the region because they had their hands in so many political pots.
  6. India is the #1 banana producer in the world.
  7. In 2001, Britain recorded 300 incidents of injuries related to bananas. The majority of these involved people slipping on banana peels.
  8. In Uganda, bananas are such a big part of the diet that the same word, matooke, is used for both "food" and "banana."
  9. It is believed by many experts that bananas were the first fruit cultivated by humans.
  10. It is believed that the Cavendish, like the Gros Michel, will be devastated by Panama disease within 20 years and will no longer be able to be produced commercially. This would be a difficult blow to the banana industry.
  11. Panama disease, or Fusarium wilt, is a fungus that attacks banana plants. It was reported in Australia in the 19th century.
  12. Plantains are a type of banana that are not as sweet and are usually cooked. While not as commonly eaten in North America, plantains are a dietary staple in many tropical regions.
  13. Scientists are trying to develop a hybrid, disease-resistant banana.
  14. The average American consumes 28 pounds of bananas per year.
  15. The banana is the fruit of this herb.The cluster of bananas sold in supermarkets is a "hand" of bananas, while the individual bananas on the hand are called fingers.
  16. The banana peel is edible, though perhaps not very palatable unless cooked.
  17. The banana split was invented in 1904 by 23-year-old David Evans Strickler, an employee at the Tassel Pharmacy soda fountain in Latrobe, Pennsylvania.
  18. The banana "tree" is not really a tree, but a giant herb.
  19. The CIA-sponsored 1954 coup that overthrew the democratically-elected Guatemalan government headed by Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán is believed to be a direct result of influence by the United Fruit Company, which had an antagonistic relationship with the Arbenz government.
  20. The most popular banana cultivar in the world is the Cavendish. This is the banana most often seen in U.S. and European markets.
  21. The pejorative term "banana republic" was coined by American writer O. Henry. He used it in reference to Honduras, but the term became widely used in reference to any Latin American, Caribbean, or African country that was politically unstable, relied heavily on basic agriculture, and was not technologically advanced.
  22. The song "Yes, We Have No Bananas" was released in 1923 and became a huge hit. It refers to the banana shortage at the time.
  23. The strings that go up and down the length of bananas are called Phloem Bundles. They help distribute nutrients to every part of the growing bananas.
  24. The yellow bananas that are most often sold in supermarkets are sometimes called "dessert bananas" because they are soft and sweet.
  25. Worldwide, bananas are the fourth largest fruit crop.

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May 06, 2008

SEO Secret Ninjutsu Technique

SEO Secret Ninjutsu Technique

The title of this article is designed to illustrate the point of this article. Today we won't be talking about some Black-Hat SEO Tactics. What we're going to uncovered here are the hidden / secret (i.e. dark) areas of effective SEO strategy. Here I'm going to illustrate some of the tricks that can be used to drive traffic to your site. Is this a conflict? Not really; these "tricks" aren't so much directed at search engines as they are website owners and visitors. These are marketing tricks, not SEO tricks - they just happen to help you with your rankings.

Basic - Google Review

When most people think of Google they think of the dominant search engine (and in that they would be right). HOWEVER if Google was primarily a search engine they would be much smaller than they are now. No, they are an advertising company and the world's largest at that. To this end they need traffic, market share, and clicks. They need you to love Google.com, visit it often, visit their other properties and offerings such as Gmail.

If you do this, the odds of you clicking on one of the paid ads increases and their primary function is fulfilled. It is driven by this purpose that Google has developed the most complex search algorithm that has ever existed. Their search is their primary source of traffic. The better their results, the more you will return, the greater the likelihood you will click an ad, the more revenue they generate (thus leading to their continued increases in reported revenue quarter-after-quarter). Why is this important?

Because this is the driving force of their current algorithm and will be for the foreseeable future we can assume that any action that increases relevant traffic to your site, increases the stickiness of your site and/or increases the number of links from relevant sites to yours will help your rankings and it will help Google keep their visitors loyal.

Let's also recall the purpose of this article. This is NOT an article about black-hat search engine optimization tactics, it's about the Secret Ninjutsu Technique aspects of SEO that are often overlooked. And so, without further ado, let's get down to the meat - what are the dark tactics that you can use to boost your website rankings.

Building A Sticky Site

A point I've made in past articles that I will reinforce here as opposed to "contradicting" will be that of the importance of a sticky site. Of course, monitoring your statistics to assess your visitors' behavior is an important practice for the conversions on your site however it's importance from a search engine optimization perspective is often overlooked. I've mentioned before and I'll mention again, the search engines have the ability to monitor the length of time a visitor spends between visits to that engine. If you are on Google, enter "NeoBot's" into it and visit the NeoBots Weblogs site but only spend 5 seconds there before hitting the back button Google can infer that the site was not what you were looking for. If it was 5 or 10 minutes before you returned back to Google they could thus infer that you found content you found useful to your query.

So let's put that more obviously, having a site on which visitors find what they're looking for quickly, easily, and in a visually pleasing way will increase their time on your site which will thus increase the assumption by the search engines that you are relevant for the phrase the searcher has queried. This will reinforce that your site does indeed belong among the top site. As a disclaimer: this works on a mass scale so don't go running off and clicking through to you competitors and quickly hitting the back button. First, it's unethical (like clicking their paid links) and second, it doesn't work like that (how big a hole would THAT be in the algorithm) so it would only be a waste of your time.

Clickability Counts

The engines know when your site appears in a set of search results and they further know how often your site was click on when it appeared. The more often your site is selected when presented in a set of results the more relevant it is assumed to be and thus, the more entrenched it becomes in that set of results (assuming your stickiness issues are dealt with).

What this means is that your title and description matter, not just as part of the classical search engine optimization tactics we've used them for since the 90's but also to draw visitors to your site. Fortunately the end goal of the engines closely matches what your own end goal should be for your site - maximizing traffic.

Keep It Short, & Easily Read

Always keep it short, easily read, and always such that the whole title will appear in the SERPs (Search Engine Results Pages). Our clickthroughs are much higher with shorter titles than longer and we have seen the same results with client sites.

The same applies to your description tag but the rules are a bit different. With your description tag you want to make sure to include your Targeted Keywords and make the copy compelling to a searcher. The reason for this is that when searched keywords are including in your description, is is typically the description that appears in the SERPs. This give you an opportunity to determine how your ad to the world appears. You write your title, you write your description - write both well and your clickthroughs will increase. And when your clickthroughs go up, the implied relevancy the engines will assume your site has to that phrase will increase with it and thus, so too will your Rankings for that phrase.

Getting People To Link To You

We're not going to bother discussing reciprocal Link Building, directory submissions or the other usual suspects. There are countless articles out there on those topics; what we're going to focus on here are the tactics for getting articles picked up widely the resources you want to get them onto (and if you're reading this - you know it works) as well as ways to get the links that both you and the search engines will love the most - the ones you don't ask for or work for outside of creating a great site with useful content. The best part of these links is that they not only work to boost your link popularity but they also tend to drive great traffic to your site. Let's begin with articles.

When you're working to publish an article there are two main audience members: the readers and, more importantly, the editors (I say more importantly as they're the ones that determine if you have any readers at all). There are some tactics for increasing both:
  1. Write a compelling title. This gets back to the point I was making in the first paragraph. Everyone is interested in Black Hat SEO, even those of us who don't practice it. Readers will be drawn to it as it receives relatively low coverage and editors like to publishing something that they feel may draw some controversy. While this article doesn't get into black hat tactics as some editors may have hoped, it will draw them in and get their attention.
  2. Find quality related resources and get the article published there. You can do it manually through a search engine. You want the places you submit to, to be related to your industry and you want them to provide a Link Back. If you can setup that link as anchor text instead of your URL - all the better.
  3. Keep a list and add to it. If you're going to publish multiple articles don't start from scratch every time. Keep a list and try to add a few sites to it with each submission. This will keep your list growing and get you more exposure/links as time goes on.
  4. Keep a good relationship with the editors. They are the end-all-be-all of whether this tactic will work or not as a link and traffic building tactic. Make sure you're polite and don't write nasty emails if you get declined. Read what they say and make sure to take it into account with future articles.
But what if you don't want to Build Links with articles, what if you want to get links the old fashioned way (and I'm talking about the old old old way - you know, before there was any SEO value to it). What if you would like to get people to link to you simply because they like your content (I know, shocking but it actually happens !!!) There are a few different factors that you need to take into account to accomplish this. Here are a few important rules to follow:
  1. You'll need to create content that others will want to link to. This is an art in-and-of-itself. I wrote about some of the basic rules involved with this in a past article "Link Building Campaign" and so I won't repeat it here.
  2. Get the bait into social bookmarking sites. This will get people interested in your topic aware of it. If it's good, they may link to it. Don't just focus on Digg and the other majors, look around for some industry-specific bookmarking sites. For example, when this article is complete I'll work to get it into Sphinn, an SEO bookmarking site. Read This, "100 Blogging Toolset".
  3. Get the bait into forums and/or blogs. I'm not talking about blog sp@mming here, I'm talking about finding blogs and forums that are RELATED to your topic and who's visitors could be genuinely helped by the tool, information, etc. that you're providing. Don't worry if the blog has rel="nofollow" on the links. The purpose is webmaster awareness, not getting links from the blogs (I'll leave that to a different article).
  4. Promote the bait on your site. Use banners, links, your blog, etc. to build awareness.
  5. Provide the code to link to your bait. The easier you make it for people to link to you, the more of them will. Provide the code with a text and banner option and you'll increase the number of people who will link to you.
  6. Put out a press release. If it's big enough news, put out a press release. If the media grabs it you've won the lottery both in publicity and in high valued links.
  7. If the topic of your bait is searched on the engines, rank it. :)

So these are the Secret Ninjutsu Technique we're talking about. Not Black-Hat SEO Technique. Add these to your repertoire of thoughts as you optimize and link building for your site and you've given yourself a one-up over most if not all of your competition.

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May 05, 2008

Tactics - Grey Hat SEO

Tactics - Grey Hat SEO

This Tactics are categorized as the Grey Hat SEO. It's because this tactics fall in the grey area between legitimate tactics and search engine spam. They include tactics such as cloaking, paid links, duplicate content and a number of others. Unless you are on the correct side of this equation these tactics are not recommended.

It may be very tempting to to enlist grey-hat and black-hat SEO tactics in order to rank well. But, by doing so you're just one step closer to be Doomed To The Net Hell (stands a very good chance of getting your website penalized). There are legitimate methods for ranking a website well on the search engines. It is highly recommended that webmasters and SEO's put in the extra time and effort to properly rank a website well, insuring that the site will not be penalized down the road or even banned from the search engines entirely.

Note : Even if the search engines cannot detect these tactics when they are used as spam, your competitors will undoubtedly be on the lookout and report your site to the engines in order to eliminate you from the competition.


There are times when cloaking is considered a legitimate tactic by users and search engines alike. Basically, if there is a logical reason why you should be allowed to present different information to the search engines than the visitor (if you have content behind a "members only" area for example) you are relatively safe. Even so, this tactic is very risky and it is recommended that you contact each search engine, present your reasoning, and allow them the opportunity to approve it's use.

Arguably, another example of a site legitimately using cloaking, is when the site is mainly image-based such as an art site. In this event, provided that the text used to represent the page accurately defines the page and image(s) on it, this could be considered a legitimate use of cloaking. As cloaking has often been abused, if other methods such as adding visible text to the page is possible it is recommended. If there are no other alternatives it is recommended that you contact the search engine prior to adding this tactic and explain your argument.

Paid Links

The practice of purchasing link on websites solely for the increase in link-popularity that it can mean has grown steadily over the last year-or-so with link auction sites such as LinkAdage making this practice easier.

When links are purchased as pure advertising the practice is considered legitimate, while the practice of purchasing links only for the increase in link-popularity is considered an abuse and efforts will be made to either discount the links or penalize the site (usually the sellers though not always).

As a general rule, if you are purchasing links you should do so for the traffic that they will yield and consider any increase in link-popularity to be an "added bonus".

Duplicate Content

Due primarily to the increase in popularity of affiliate programs, duplicate content on the web has become an increasingly significant problem for both search engines and search engine users alike with the same or similar sitesdominating the top positions in the search engine results pages.

To address this problem many search engines have added filters that seek out pages with the same or very similar content and eliminate the duplicate. Even at times when the duplicate content is not detected by the search engines it is often reported by competitors and the site's rankings penalized.

There are times when duplicate content is considered legitimate by both search engines and visitors and that is on resource sites. A site that consists primarily as an index of articles on a specific subject-matter will not be penalized by posting articles that occur elsewhere on the net, though the weight it may be given as additional content will likely not be as high as a page of unique content.

If you find competitors using these tactics it is not unethical to report them to the search engines. You are helping yourself, the search engines, and the visitors by insuring that only legitimate companies, providing real information and content, appear at the top of the search engines.

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Tactics - White Hat SEO

Tactics - White Hat SEO

White Hat Tactics SEO are any SEO tactic that maintains the integrity of your website and the SERPs (search engine results pages).

Internal Linking

By far one of the easiest ways to stop your website from ranking well on the search engines is to make it difficult for search engines to find their way through it. Many sites use some form of script to enable fancy drop-down navigation, etc. Many of these scripts cannot be crawled by the search engines resulting in unindexed pages.

While many of these effects add visual appeal to a website, if you are using scripts or some other form of navigation that will hinder the spidering of your website it is important to add text links to the bottom of at least your homepage linking to all you main internal pages including a sitemap to your internal pages.

Reciprocal Linking

Exchanging links with other webmasters is a good way (not the best, but good) of attaining additional incoming links to your site. While the value of reciprocal links has declined a bit over the past year they certainly still do have their place.

A VERY important note is that if you do plan on building reciprocal links it is important to make sure that you do so intelligently. Random reciprocal link building in which you exchange links with any and virtually all sites that you can will not help you over the long run. Link only to sites that are related to yours and who's content your visitors will be interested in and preferably which contain the keywords that you want to target. Building relevancy through association is never a bad thing unless you're linking to bad neighborhoods (penalized industries and/or websites).

Content Creation

Don't confuse "content creation" with doorway pages and the such. When we recommend content creation we are discussing creating quality, unique content that will be of interest to your visitors and which will add value to your site.

The more content-rich your site is the more valuable it will appear to the search engines, your human visitors, and to other webmasters who will be far more likely to link to your website if they find you to be a solid resource on their subject.

Creating good content can be very time-consuming, however it will be well worth the effort in the long run. As an additional bonus, these new pages can be used to target additional keywords related to the topic of the page.

Writing For Others

You know more about your business that those around you so why not let everyone know? Whether it be in the form of articles, forum posts, or a spotlight piece on someone else's website, creating content that other people will want to read and post on their sites is one of the best ways to build links to your website that don't require a reciprocal link back.

Site Optimization

The manipulation of your content, wording, and site structure for the purpose of attaining high search engine positioning is the backbone of SEO and the search engine positioning industry. Everything from creating solid title and meta tags to tweaking the content to maximize it's search engine effectiveness is key to any successful optimization effort.

That said, it is of primary importance that the optimization of a website not detract from the message and quality of content contained within the site. There's no point in driving traffic to a site that is so poorly worded that it cannot possibly convey the desired message and which thus, cannot sell. Site optimization must always take into account the maintenance of the salability and solid message of the site while maximizing it's exposure on the search engines.

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